Codex of Kra Translation

The Codex of Kra is governed by rule 1317

Calvin N Hobbes was elected AckaPhysicist on 27-Oct-96

Calvin N Hobbes (November 3rd, 1996)

This is the first translation of many from the Codex.

Many terms had to be translated to something close to what we could understand in our own language. It seems that there is much knowledge to be found in the tome.

The following was an introduction to a lengthy chapter, which all seem to be related to some "other dimension". It seemed to be the best place to start.

"Time Dynamics"

By prof dreilich et al. of 1BI

"From experimentation, the nature of the effects observed by our colleague steamiswatervapor is explained. Determination of its complex nature is shown to require more experimentation and we will make recommendations for further study and applications.

A brief introduction to the steamiswatervapor effect, also known as the Condensation Problem, is first required. Our colleagues at the 3rd Sphere Institute observed that there existed another universe existing in parallel to our own. After more experiments, they were able to determine that this new universe was in fact our spare one, much in the same way that vehicles have a spare wheel.

This universe, named U2, had amazing properties. For example, it was determined that in it, time was not malleable, as in ours (U1). The concept that time may actually be a dimension that cannot be altered and has a fixed, non reversible flow rate is indeed stunning. What would it feel like not knowing what a report would turn out to be before you started it? While such questions are interesting, they are best left to our philosophers.

U2 also has other striking properties, but the one of interest here is this "moving time", or "time dynamics". The scientific community was even more puzzled when 3SI found that time in U2 was not, in fact, smoothly distributed but had pockets of higher density and lower density, much as if time had been a gas (and was still mostly one) but had condensed in places.

It is from this point that the 1st Blue Institute took over. The reader who wishes to learn more background information should read "Time U" and "U2 Can Condense".

The 1BI team decided to begin taking measurements of U2. After sending a few probes (basically just rocks and stones -- available at any vending machines near you -- into U2 (*), we found out that it was both small and large. This depended on the events and time flow in U1. However, it was clear U2, just as U1, was finite.

After observing patches of smooth time, we found that these could potentially be good places for colonization. There would be side effects, but they should have a marginal impact on colonists. However, the condensed time locations were more harsh and would certainly prove lethal to our kind.

For testing purposes, with the support of the Lawkeepers and the LiCnUoC, we were allowed to send intelligent probes into U2 to gather information. After contacting 1SI we were able to build robotic insects, on the same scale as that of a flea, which allowed us to not pollute U2 significantly.

The data is in the appendix. No life was found and the resources of that universe seem to be enough to support the idea of an expedition. The data also supported the gas morphology theory about time in U2. It may be that U2 is actually a universe in formation, being created as a child to U1.

At this point we are of the opinion that more research is required. We recommend building more probes and a cosversalgate to U2. This gate would allow us to extract a sample of this universe and bring it in ours for further, more detailed study. A prototype gate is being constructed at 2SI and it is promising, but has ran into a problem: the cosversalgate, a very beautiful blue sphere, automatically expands to take the shape of it container. They are working on giving it a gel core that would allow for some control.

Some members of our team are of the opinion a transfer between universes could have catastrophic consequences, but the majority is not, provided enough precautions are taken. Certainly, we should keep that sample in a double chamber, magnetically sealed and levitated vacuum chamber.

(*) See "Alternate Universe Pollution", based on the court case 'players vs whoisarebel' (C4536). The defendant was convicted of throwing away a used gumball into U2. He did so that as an example of ways to dispose of our own garbage and wanted to set up a corporation with sole rights. The court ruled this was immoral and illegal by L167321(a).

Calvin N Hobbes (November 7th, 1996)

This is a per request translation to better understand the workings of our universe. Snowgod, having time to be contemplative while in goal, asked about the suction pumps and emergency tethers.

Having studied the tome for almost two weeks now, I have gathered that the tome is ordered in an almost chronological way (I will write more on this some other time). Anyway, I found an interesting passage just past the middle.

"Solving The Sucker Problem."

By profs pumpitin, glueitall et al. Of 5BI

"We investigate the Sucker 2000, manufactured by Weightless Corp, explain the results obtain in its labs and simulations. We then propose a solution, providing early experimentation results and show the superiority of a new device.

The LiCnUoC had put the Fifth Blue Institute in charge of modeling and solving one of the fundamental problems in the colonization of U2: it's lack of gravity at certain points in it, most notably a planet code named ear-th'. This planet is of interest because of it's good location and potential.

The Weightless Corp was created by a group of enthusiastic young Scientists who had studied the obvious problem the lack of gravity on ear-th' caused and had come up with a solution they wanted to market. The Sucker 2000, basically just a suction pump, was to be used in keeping everything attached to the surface. Unfortunately, the few robots sent on exploration simply fell off since the S2000s were themselves not attached to the surface properly, limiting the exploration work to the early mechanized flying insects.

After many simulations, we have come up with a solution. First, we had considered the fact that the suction pumps were placed in the ground and sucked _it_, we considered making this a two way thing. By sticking two suction pumps together, the top one could attach to the object's underside, while the one below attached itself to the ground. Upon sending another robot in, one of our assistants (who has since been promoted to 3BI) noted that the mobility was very restricted and the suction to the underside of objects was fine, but people would not like it.

So we refined the design with a breakthrough. Attach only one suction pump _to the underside of the object_. We can weld or glue (see later) the S2000s to shoes or objects, and it is done. Also, with a bit of electronics, we can detect when a person wants to lift their feet. Thus we can de-attach the suction pump, allow the person to move, and when the S2000 touches the ground again, it reactivates. This process can be done at very high speeds, and the principle can be applied to other objects. For example, detect an object is being grabbed and pulled to be moved.

We have sent the prototypes to 2BI for miniaturization, and we are told these suckers could be reduced in height to about 1 millimeter and not compromise their suction power. Weightless Corp is planning to market the design under the name ThinkSuction II, with royalties shared with the BIs.

Initial testing in U2 are very promising. Robot mobility is up 17695%, as is motor control. However, we have also found a problem. It seems that the suckers do not work on water. While we do not expect people to try walking on water, rain and various household accidents could bring up interesting side effects.

A colleague of mine then came up with an interesting solution. Prof glueitall, who had briefly worked with us when we had done the gluing of two suction pumps together, had continued his work on glues and made some new discoveries. Among these was a new, extra strength, extra fast glue that could be created by exposing a chemical to air.

Basically, he proposed that we have a small chemical pack in the suction devices. Whenever the device is detached accidently, there is a very sudden rush of air into the micro pockets which propel the chemical content in one tiny stream toward the ground. Very quickly, the stream reaches the ground, solidifies, holding the ground and suction device together (and thus whatever is attached to that sucker).

This tethering process ensures that whatever loses its ThinkSuction II grip is kept near the ground. The average tether can withstand roughly the equivalent of 10 tons of pressure before breaking. It's average length is 5 meters. The tether, on the other hand, can easily be cut by a sharp edge. By increasing the number and size of chemical pockets, both length and diameter can be increased. Huge masses could be kept at very long distances without requiring too many pockets.

The only problem with this device is the fact that over time, the glue will begin to decompose. Within 7 days, the chemical desolidifies and has lost most of its stability, suddenly returning to its liquid-gel state. At that time, it can be stored back into its container for use later on. We postulate this is due to competing reactions with nitrogen and oxygen. Reaction with nitrogen results in the glue, while the more favored one with oxygen removes the nitrogen. When exposed, the chemical finds 80% nitrogen in the air and solidifies. Then over time, the 20% oxygen slowly remove the nitrogen. Once saturated with oxygen, the oxygen migrates to the outer surface and escapes, making the gel again nitrogen-active. This process loses effectiveness with time, but each pockets has an estimated 100'000 times worth of use each. More experimentation may lead to better, longer lasting glues.

We also note that when the diameter of the tether is increased, it decays exponentially slower. A one meter diameter tether would take so long to decompose that it is meaningless to even talk about it (assuming time flow is that of ear-th').

We recommend more testing and more research of the ThinkSuction II. As we have seen once again, research in one area leads to more discoveries in many fields."

Calvin N Hobbes (December 19th, 1996)

This is a rather lengthy report as it is one of the more substantial pieces I could find and still translate.

This was a long and difficult translation, but it pays off. First, we learn the physics behind the R1306, that says one side of the universe has stronger "attraction", implying some kind of gravity, although we now know it isn't, as R1238 predicted. It also explains R826, which talks of Acid rain *falling* down. Not to mention the tornado, and other events and objects in acka that have some dependence on a force between them and the planet.

Second, this has a very important implication for us. Since we are not affected by this force, it means we are mostly, if not entirely composed of material originating from U1. Certain buildings and many objects also seem to have an extradimensional origin. The very fact that as a racial memory, we would know enough about gravity to know it wasn't present in Acka implied as much.

It seems that we are closer to finding out so much, about ourselves, about our universe. Yet there are still many unanswered question, and while the answers are coming in slowly, each brings up new questions.

"New Sub-Atomic Force"
By prof talenz et al. of 1GI


The sample from U2, contained in the double layer, magnetically sealed and levitated vacuum chamber has been analysed and the preliminary results indicate that there is a new force with subatomic origins present in it. This force is named and its effects explained.


There is no gravity in the dimension from where the sample originates. However, biological evidence now coming into light points to some pseudo gravitational force being present. In a simple question, why does rain fall? Our probes simply do not report any kind of gravitational forces.

We have been able to observe electric and magnetic forces in action between molecules and atoms and thus the cohesion of matter is not in question. These forces are similar enough to those in U1 to explain the various state changes that occur with temperature in matter.

To explore the problem further, we devised a method to observe the atomic arrangement and the forces present in the sample without actually opening the sample's container, which the scientific community believes is far too dangerous. By putting the container in a quantic field at 100 times normal level, we can observe the distortions in that field using a Quantic Pulse Sonar.

The results were astonishing. There is no gravity as we know it, but there exists resolvable nonmaterial lines of force between atoms. These thread like lines have been named talens.


These lines of force just float about at irregular velocities. Although they are quite flexible, bend, twist and stretch on their own, we were not able to directly influence these changes and it seems to be an autonomous property. We have observed their dimensions to range from thin and long to thick and short. This is at the atomic level: a thick talen would have a diameter of about 5-6 picometers, and a long one a length of about 10 meters or longer.

Their shape is not definitive and can change both in thickness and length with just one restriction. We measured the dimensions of talens and can postulate that a change in length means a compensating change in the other, so that an increase in length means a decrease in thickness: it is not possible to have a thick long talent. In our sample, we can almost measure them all, although some of the longer ones cannot be directly detected by our instruments.

Properties of Talens

The distribution of shapes in a sample of these threads seems to be based on an equilibrium. If a sample contains only long threads, a number will become shorter. Not just "short" but a whole range of sizes from very short to very long. The proportion of each talens size is not constant, but varies depending on several factors. This will be discussed below.

The talens density varies quite significantly, from close to zero in a vacuum to billions per unit volume in matter. It should be noted that for an as yet unknown reason, the density of talens seems to be related to the actual matter density -- with some rare exceptions [1]. For example, a heavy metal has more talens per unit volume than some lighter metal. It is unclear at this point if they are related effects, one is a consequence of the other, or if they are totally independent.

The movement of individual talens is non deterministic, and in a pure sample, the density remains constant throughout. For impure substances, an observable migrations of talens occurs on the whole. For example, pure water [ap note: in blue] has all its talens evenly distributed [ap note: lower left diagram],larger and their shapes follows a normal distribution [ap note: Gaussian, top left]. Now we add salt [ap note: in red], which is more dense and has more talens per unit area. As if to maximize the distance between the talens of the salt particles and those in the water, the density of talens on the border areas between them falls [ap note: lower right]. This has the net increase of forming denser pockets in the area closer to the salt, and also at the outer surface area of the water. As soon as a density change at a discreet point occurs, the distribution of the shapes changes [ap note: upper right]. If the density increases, the length of the talens increases and vice versa.

At a cosmic size, we can see that planets, which are a composition of a large number of different substances, and a lot of it, there are many talens pockets of high density, some with very high density resulting in a theoretical length on the order of several light years long. Certain large stars would have about 1% of their talens with a length beyond 100 light years.

Another effect to note is that talens can migrate between substances. For example, a talen near water may migrate to be near a salt molecule. However, this is also an equilibrium process and thus occurs both ways, eventually resulting in no net change. There are small correction factors that need to be associated with all these results since there are non ideal effects we had not finished examining before presenting this report.

Talenzien Force Generation

The actual force is due to talens that have both end touching a different atom, and about 10-50% of all talens are in such a state at any given time. At that instant, the two atoms synchronize their energies. The talenzien force is generated making the two move toward each other. Moving the two atoms apart is much harder and more energy consuming. After a variable but extremely short amount of time, one of the ends breaks off from an atom, then from the other, and the talen floats away. The more talens there are, the more likely talenzien synchronization is to occur. And the longer they are, the more likely it is to reach another atom (greater range when contorting).

In the water example we mention, this means that for pure water would have a certain talenzien pull down because of the planet below it, a pull that is not balanced out by another equivalent pull the in the opposite direction. it is thus possible to turn over the glass and the water will fall. This explains the rain observed even though there is a lack of gravitational force.

This force allows us to actually give weights to each mass. It should be noted that it is theoretically possible to obtain salt water which has a greater weight than the sum of the weights of the individual separate parts of salt and water, or other mixtures with lower weights that their individual components. Several teams are working on these applications which could revolutionize transportation systems.


All matter in U2 seems to have talens present in it. The matter in U1 does not. So that when the two are put together there is next to no gravitational or talenzien interaction between them, since the two forces are so different as to be incompatible. So U2 water in a U2 glass over a U2 planet sets up interactions between each and the liquid stays in the glass. Turning the glass over makes the liquid fall toward the planet. If it's U1 water instead, turning it over does not make it fall down.

We are looking at incorporating some of the U2 matter into U1 machines so that they do not float off when transported through the cosversal gate. This is still at the theoretical stage, but we hope to get the go ahead for real tests soon.

[1] This are preliminary results and are still being checked.

Alfvaen was elected AckaPhysicist on 27-May-97

Alfvaen (June 12, 1997)

While I was preparing for my Acid Rain Dance, I examined several passages in the Codex of Kra. At the time I just gave them a cursory once-over to make sure that I had the general idea, without fully translating them. In performing the full translation, I found myself distracted by other sections referenced by the sections on Acid Rain, and I was intrigued by the intricate interrelationship of Acid Rain and the Amber Banana Tree. I realize that the latter falls out of the strict realm of Physics, but my obligation is simply to translate the Codex, and apparently the Ancients were not that picky about segregating their sciences. In any case, I display here excerpts from the first paper, and hope to have some available from the second paper shortly:

The Phenomenon of Peculiarly Locally-Acidic Precipitation
by doesitmelt

The means by which precipitation falls, in the absence of gravity, has been elsewhere described [1]. This rain is normally a pure substance which is chemically indistinguishable from normal water. However, at certain times, which follow a periodicity which is still in dispute(but see [2]), there are some impurities which are found in the water. These impurities demonstrate, more than any other substance yet found in U2, the slight chemical differences between the two worlds.

The impurities consist mostly of substances which would be considered acidic in our world--that is, they are willing electron absorbers, and increase the hydronium ion concentration in water. However, there are puzzling differences--mainly that these acidic substances, dissolved in high concentrations, have no effect whatsoever on any substance not from U2. The effects on U2-native substances are more noticeable, but still less than would be expected. It is anticipated that the talenzien force[3] is sufficient to explain this puzzle. The exception is on native life forms.

There are, of course, few life forms native to U2. Surmises as to why this is so have been made elsewhere([4], [5]). However, there can be little doubt that the so-called Amber Banana Tree(whose taxonomic classification is still in dispute-see [6])is among the highest indigenous life forms. Most shocking, then, is the reaction of this tree to the acidic precipitation. Upon being contacted by this "acid rain", the Amber Banana Tree almost instantly starts to wither and is rendered lifeless within minutes.

If this is the case, then some puzzling perplexities are posed. [Translator's Note: I have preserved the alliteration from the original, but am uncertain of the tone it is intended to convey--irony? emphasis? puzzlement?] First of all, if the Acid Rain(as the more popularist journals have dubbed it)comes periodically, and the Amber Banana Tree is wiped out thereby, how does it come that there was still an Amber Banana Tree in existence? At least one interesting theory[7] has been proposed to explain this enigma.

Another possibility is that the periodicity of the Acid Rain may not be absolute. The impurities mentioned above are suspended in the air "above" and "below" the disc of U2, just as the water vapour is that is eventually pulled down by the talenzien force. The equilibrium equation that has been determined[8] for the water-impurity mixture does not necessarily lead to nucleation. The effect seems to be nonlinear, sometimes happening spontaneously, but more often not.

In the case of the recent episode of Acid Rain, it is obvious that something occurred to upset the equilibrium. It seems entirely possible that it was the very observations and measurements of the mixture that caused it to nucleate and travel torward the disc via the talenzien force, i.e. "rain". Light sources in U2 tend to be steady, and a variable influx of photons doubtless destabilized the equilibrium by raising the energy levels of some particles and facilitating the talenzien force, until a "critical mass" was reached and the nucleation became self-sustaining. Thus care should be taken with future observations. Perhaps a non-photonic means of observation can be used.

An alternative is simply to protect the Amber Banana Tree(while the original found in U2 has been destroyed, some success has come about in preparing, through genetic techniques, a replica from the remains of its tissue [9]). It has been determined [10] that the native substance most impervious to the Acid Rain is a naturally-occurring(although rare)metal which resembles bronze. While it is not available in large quantities, it is extremely malleable, and the creation of a sheltering device from this metal should not prove difficult.

In any case, the recent precipitation has drastically reduced the amount of protoacidic material in the atmosphere, so it will be some time before even the most powerful photons will cause any problems, and I encourage researchers to take advantage of this opportunity to redouble their observations.

[1] "New Sub-Atomic Force", prof talenz et al., 1GI
[2] "A Theory of Numerically-Based Time Periodicity", prof cycloide, 3SI
[3] talenz
[4] "U2 Lifeform Pollution from U1", prof greenie, 9EI
[5] "Diversity Drop In U2", prof gould et al., 1PI
[6] "A Case Against Assignment of The U2 'Tree' To Plantae", prof taxon, 2LI
[7] "The Life Cycle of The Amber Banana Tree", prof woodisgood, prof kangarooney, 1LI
[8] "A Talenzien-Based Equilibrium Cycle", prof abscissas, 4CI
[9] "Some Applications of The Similarity of U2 Genetic Material", dr frameshift, dr viewomb, et al., 1QI
[10] "A Study of U2 Pseudo-Acid Permeability On Native Materials", prof shovelpound, prof surfloop, 8BI

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Last Updated 1-Jun-97

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